A Four-Stage Training Model
- Identify needs within a context.
- Levels - individual, group and organisation
- Processes used to determine whether T&D is necessary and in what areas
- There could be more appropriate solutions (e.g. recruiting differently; organising work differently)
- Training: what currently is VS what should be happening
- Development: what likely to happen VS what should happen (more future-oriented)
- Data-driven (e.g. surveys; interviews; reports).
- Given the context, particular issues, needs assessments, as well as cost/benefit analyses and available resources, how do we progress by designing the best program that we can?
- Written up as an overall plan and strategy and/or session plan/s.
- An overall aim and learning objectives are essential.
- The program needs to be logical while also being responsive to needs.
- HR professionals need to be aware of their own values and have insights into how learning outcomes can be best achieved (e.g. they may value mentoring programs but need to have insights into their advantages and disadvantages).
- Activities and their delivery need to be guided by, for example, the aims and objectives of the program, learning theories, needs assessment, learner characteristics, and costs.
- HR professionals often have a great deal of choice in the training and development methods that can be used (e.g. face-to-face; on-line; learner centred activities, role plays).
- Process of collecting information about outcomes needed to determine whether training and development is effective
- Data driven
- Includes assessments or tests that can occur within the session
- Use an evaluation model (e.g. Kirkpatrick model):
- Reactions to session/s
- Learning from session/s
- Transfer of learning to job
- Outcomes for wider organisation
- Feeds into future recommendations and may identify other needs